Praise be to Allah Alone, the Lord of the universe. Peace and blessings be upon the Last Prophet, his Family and all his Companions.
“Udhiya” is an Arabic term which means ‘sacrificing an animal’, and “Qurban” is an Arabic word which literally means an act performed to seek Allah’s pleasure. It is technically used for the sacrifice of an animal slaughtered for the sake of Allah.
Virtues of Udhiya:
Allah Most High Says:“So turn in prayer towards your Lord and sacrifice (animals).”(Qur’an 108:2)
The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: (There is nothing dearer to Allah during the days of Udhiya than the sacrificing of animals. The sacrificed animal shall come on the Day of Judgment with its horns, hair, and hooves (to be weighed). The sacrifice is accepted by Allah before the blood reaches the ground. Therefore sacrifice with an open and happy heart.) (Sunan Tirmizi and Sunan Ibn Majah)
Zayd ibn Arqam (RA) relates that the Companions asked:(O Messenger of Allah! What is Udhiya? He replied, It is the Sunna of your father Ibrahim (peace be upon him). They asked again: What benefit do we get from it? He answered, A reward for every hair (of the sacrificed animal). And [what reward is there for animals with] wool, O Messenger of Allah? they asked. A reward, he said, ‘for every fiber of the wool.’ (Sunan Ibn Majah)
When a person slaughters an Udhiya animal, he is forgiven at the fall of the first drop of blood,and verily, the animal shall be brought forwardon the Day Of Judgment with its blood, meat etc., and shall be increased in weight seventy times more than its own weight, and thereafter it will be placed on the scale of deeds. (See: Kanz al-Ummal)
Who required to perform Udhiya?
Every adult Muslim, male or female, who owns 595 grams of silver or its equivalent in money, personal ornaments, stock-in-trade or any other form of wealth which is in excess of one’s basic personal needs, is under an obligation to offer the Udhiya.
Each adult member of a family who owns the prescribed amount must carry out his or her own Udhiya separately.
If the husband owns the required amount but his wife does not, then slaughtering will be obligatory on the husband only, and vice-versa. If both of them have the prescribed amount of wealth, then two separate Udhiyas will need to be performed. Likewise the adult children live with their parents. Offering Udhiya to others, apart from his own, may offer another on behalf of his wife or son, with their permission.
The Time of Udhiya
Udhiya is only valid during the three days of Dhu’l-Hijjah; the 10th, 11th and 12th, and the first day is the most preferable and desired day.
Conditions for the Udhiya
The animals eligible for Udhiya are goats, sheep, cattle and camels, male or female.Goats and sheep have to be at least one year old. However, a healthy sheep that looks like a one year old may also be used, provided it is at least six months of age. Cattle (cow, ox and buffalo) must be at least two years old.Camels must be at least five years old.
Castrated, barren, hornless born animalsmay be used or eligible for Udhiya.
Ineligible Defects for Udhiya
- Broken horn animals.
- Totally blind or lost one of its eye-sight.
- Has no ear or lost one of its ear.
- Has no tail or lost one-third or more of its tail.
- Limps or walks on three legs.
- Has no teeth at all or lost most of its teeth.
- Thin and extremely weak animals.
Special Cases Udhiya still Eligible:
- Udhiya sustained injury before slaugthering.
- Accidentoccurred before the slaughtering of Udhiya which make it unfit but the purchaser is no longer wealthy.
- Udhiya gives birth before being slaughtered, the newly born should also be slaughtered.
Slaughter of the Udhiya
It is recommended (mustahabb) by slaughtering the Udhiya to do the followings:
- To slaughteritpersonally by theowner.
- To delegate the slaughter to other if the owner unable to slaughter.
- The owner must be present at the time of slaughter.
- To face the Qibla while slaughtering.
- To sharpen the knife before slaughter to ease the suffering of the animal.
- The animal should not be skinned or cut up into pieces before it turns completely cold.
- It is disliked to slaughter an animal in the presence of another animal.
- Whilst laying the throat of the Udhiya towards the Qibla recite the following du’a:
“For me, I have set my face firmly and truly towards Him, Who created the heavens and the earth. And never shall I give partners to Allah. Verily, my worship and my sacrifice, my living and my dying are for Allah; Lord of the worlds. O Allah this sacrifice is from you and is for you”
Whilst slaughtering the Udhiya read, “Bismillahi Allahu Akbar”.
The Meat and Skin of the Udhiya
It is allowed for the one performing Udhiya to either eat off the meat or give it to whomsoever he pleases, rich or poor, Muslim or non-Muslim. It is preferable, however, that the meat is divided into three parts: One part for the home, one part for relatives and friends, and one part for the poor and needy.
The meat or skin of the animal cannot be sold, or given to an employee or butcher in payment of his labour. It may be given as a gift. The skin of the Udhiya animal can be kept for personal use or given to anyone else for their personaluse. If the skin is sold, it is necessary to give the money accrued in charity as Sadaqah.
Sacrifice not Permissible to eat by Owner
- Sacrifice that is carried out as expiation (kaffara) for a mistake committed during Hajj.
- Sacrifice carried out for a deceased person due to his bequest (wasiyya).
- Sacrifice carried out due to a vow (nazr).
The meat of the above-mentioned 3 types of sacrifices must be distributed to the poor and needy only.
Distribution of the Meat
If an animal is sacrificed on behalf of more than one person, like a cow or camel, its meat should be divided equally among its owners based on weight, and not randomly or by mere conjecture. Even if all the partners agree on its distribution without weighing, it is still not permissible according to Shariah.
However, if the actual weighing is not practicable due to some reason, and all the partners agree to divide the meat without weighing, distribution by guess can be done with the condition that each share necessarily contains either a leg of the animal or some quantity of its liver.
May the Almighty Allah accepts our Udhiya. ‘Eid Mubarak! TakabbalAllahuminnawaminkumsalihula’mal.. WA KULLU AAMIN WA ANTUM BIKHAIR!!!